artikel • Emilio Del Giudice, V. Elia, E. Napoli and Alberto Tedeschi
Foreword to this article - by Alberto Tedeschi
The considerable contribution made by modern quantum physics to the understanding of life’s mechanisms, and how the properties of water function and affect all living organisms is one of the most important breakthroughs in recent history of sciene.
THE ROLE OF WATER IN THE LIVING ORGANISMS
E. Del Giudice* INFN, Milano, Italy and IIB, Neuss, Germany
V. Elia, E. Napoli, Department of Chemistry, "Federico II" University, Napoli, Italy
A. Tedeschi, WHITE HB, Milano, Italy
* corresponding author
It is shown that coherent electrodynamic of water molecules produces extended regions where the chemical activity of biomolecules is governed in a selective way by a code based on frequency resonance. Coherence Domains of water act as devices able to collect low grade energy in the environment and transform it into high grade energy able to produce electronic excitations
Water is the most important constituent of all living organisms (70% of the total mass and 99% of all molecules ).Other bio-molecules, proteins, fats, sugars, vitamins, salts, which are usually considered the only molecules playing a remarkable role in molecular biology make up only 1% of the total. So, biological activity is assumed to involve 1% of all molecules only.
What is then the role of water? Is it possible that 99% of all bio-molecules are necessary only as a solvent where the “ really essential” bio- molecules enact all productive activity?
The driving and regulatory role of water in governing the biochemical activity has begun to be recognized in recent times (Voiekv, 2007).
In order to unravel this puzzle, we should take another enigma into account, that is the existence of biochemical codes (Barbieri, 2004). Apart from the living matter or more generally far from catalysts, molecules are usually subjected to a polygamous regime; each bio- molecule can interact with many others thus producing a great number of reactions. In living matter, instead, bio- molecules live inside each particular biochemical cycle in a monogamous condition ( at least within definite time intervals), that is a bio- molecule interacts with only well- defined partners, and ignoring the other bio-molecules, with which interaction would have been possible in empty space. Living matter therefore produces a “context” which is capable of preventing a great number of chemical interactions, which would theoretically be possible. The possibility of molecular interactions is governed by biochemical codes ( the genetic code is the most widely known among them) to which particular biological processes correspond. Within the world of bio-molecules there are thus the prerequisites for communication. Indeed, biochemical cycles are open and capable of reacting against new influences. In this way all the codes build up and adopt flexible features, which are typical of a language.
The emergence of these biochemical codes from the dynamics of matter is undoubtedly the main problem of biology.
2. recent results on liquid water
Recent studies (Del Giudice et al. ,1988; Arani et al. , 1996; Preparata, 1995; Del Giuduce, Preparata, 1998, Zheng et al., 2006; Del Giudice, Tedeschi, 2008) on water shed light on this puzzle and simultaneously contribute to the solution of the first enigma, that is what the role of water is in all living organisms. The following properties of all liquids (including water) have been shown as valid:
As to water the coherent oscillation carried out by each molecule takes place between a fundamental state where the electrons are strongly bound ( an energy that amounts to 12.60 electronvolts ( eV) is necessary to expel an electron, thus to ionise a molecule) and an excited state which has an excitation energy that amounts to 12.06 eV. So, when the molecule is in the excited state of its coherent oscillation, a small amount of energy as (12.60- 12.06) = 0.54 eV is enough to free an electron.. The coherent state of water has a much higher tendency to yield electrons than the non- coherent state, which actually has no such attitude, rather it tends to capture one extra, while producing a H2O- ion. The energetic barrier that refrains the electrons within the CD is sufficiently small to allot a significant probability to a typically quantum phenomenon, the so- called “quantum tunnelling”, that is the spontaneous passage of the electron across the barrier to the outside. This phenomenon is similar to radioactivity in which the nucleus constituents spontaneously cross the barrier that is characterised by nuclear forces, provided the barrier is not excessively higher than the energy of the component and the barrier is not too thick.
CDs are thus able to give rise to a significant electron transfer, that is very useful in biological systems where it supplies redox reactions. The probability of electron transfer is higher when CDs are completely surrounded by the non- coherent state. A striking example is provided by the huge releases of electric charge from the water droplets in the clouds lightnings. Another example is provided by recently produced special waters (Tedeschi, 2008; Andrievsky et al. , 2005 ; Katsir et al. ,2007) where the CDs are wider apart themselves than in normal water.
When this happens we are facing a battery where the coherent water represents the negative pole and functions electrochemically as the reducing agent. On the contrary non- coherent water with its solutes is the positive pole and it functions electrochemically as the oxidant agent. In normal water this phenomenon is very light, because an electron leaving a CD may end up in another CD. Things would be different, if we could excite the CDs bringing them into a state in which all electrons capable of “ tunnelling out” formed vortices originating a magnetic moment. This ensemble of CD’s could become coherent following the same dynamics that produced the coherence among the molecules. All excited CDs would thus show an in- phase movement and the corresponding magnetic moments adopt a structure so that the coherence domains experience a light mutual repulsion and fall apart.
The above theoretical predictions based on Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED) have found recently an experimental corroboration (Zheng et al., 2007). It has been discovered that on hydrophilic surfaces liquid water assumes peculiar properties, much similar to the properties predicted for coherent water. Very thick layers are formed where solutes cannot enter; this property has been checked by using fluorescent dyes. For this reason such region have been called exclusion zone (EZ). EZ water layers can be as thick as several microns (in special cases up to 500 microns) . The viscosity of EZ water is much higher than in bulk water, its density is slightly lower and its “effective temperature”, as measured by infrared thermography, is below 200 K. Moreover it is very easy to draw electrons from it producing without applying any external batteries, electric currents whose negative pole is EZ water and the positive pole is the non coherent aqueous medium.
The role of interfaces can be understood by considering that in bulk water electromagnetic and thermal fluctuations couple each other so that coherent and non coherent fractions are intimately mixed and the pattern of the coherent structure is so flickering that they have no possibility of exhibiting their properties for a time long enough to allow their detection. On the contrary the attraction by an hydrophilic surface adds up an energy term that protects CDs from the thermal assaults, stabilizing their structure. In this way interfacial water exhibits permanently all the features of coherent water. This is of paramount importance for biology. All the biological water can be considered interfacial water since the huge density of membranes and surfaces (mostly hydrophilic) existing in living organisms. We can conclude that biological water is widely different from normal water and looks more similar to the EZ water and the special waters quoted above. We will discuss elsewhere the properties of such special waters. Let us discuss now how the above results about water could help us to address the problem of the biological dynamics.
3. the role of water in living matter
A main conclusion of the above section is that a water CD is a device able to collect in the environment low-grade energy, having an high entropy, and transform it, by exciting coherent vortices of almost free electrons, into high grade energy, with a low entropy, that can reach the level of molecule electronic excitations. Let us apply the first principle of thermodynamics to a single water CD, evolving from a state 1 to a state 2 at a constant temperature T. By calling U the internal energy of the CD, S its entropy, Q the exchanged heat and W the work performed, we get:
By introducing the definition of free energy F=U-TS we get:
Since the coherent state has evanescent entropy, the main feature of a water CD is :
Equation 3 summarizes just the property we have expressed at the beginning, namely a CD of water is able to transform into useful work without thermal losses, the whole amount of energy it has been able to collect in the environment. Equation 3, moreover, expresses the full content of one of the principles that in 1935 Erwin Bauer (Bauer, 1935) has suggested as a basis for theoretical biology. However a major problem arises : How the CD is able to release this energy outwards? This release is not possible electromagnetically, because of the reasons given in item 3 of the previous section. This impossibility, by the way, suggests a very long life for the excited levels of the CDs. This property has been detected experimentally by some of us (Elia et al. , 2006). The only possible decay of an excited water CD is a chemical one where the excitation energy is transferred to specific non-aqueous molecules that consequently became chemically activated. The theory of electrodynamic coherence suggests a way to achieve that. A water CD has a typical oscillation frequency of 0.26 eV at T=0 (Preparata, 1995) that decreases slowly at non-vanishing temperature and can be estimated to be about 0.2 eV at room temperature. Moreover the electromagnetic field of the CD falls off exponentially out of the CD (evanescent field) . When an external molecule meets this tail of the CD field, if its frequency differs from 0.2 eV by an amount lower than kT, it is able to resonate with the CD and gets attracted inside it (Del Giudice, Tedeschi, 2008). These “guest molecules” , since they are co-resonating with the CD, become partners of the common oscillation of the water molecules and are then entitled to become members of the CD. Consequently they share the ownership of the excitation energy of the CD, so that when the amount of this energy matches the chemical activation energy of this coherent array of molecules, the full amount of energy could be transferred to them in one single stroke, as in multi-mode lasers. This energy transfer does not occur in a diffusive way, like in a non-coherent ensemble of molecules, but is driven by a field dynamics that transfers to each molecule the share of energy prescribed by the phase relationship existing in a CD, and molecules meet each other according to the co-resonance condition. The mechanism of random collisions among molecules is thus replaced by a deterministic mechanism where molecules are supplied with energy in a resonant way and meet each other within a coherent array governed by a frequency code, that becomes then a candidate to be the biochemical code. This mechanism is thus a candidate to solve the enigma discussed in the introduction and the solution implies a major role for water whose predominance in living matter acquires then a rationale.
The interplay between electromagnetism and chemistry outlined above is a possible embodiment of the pioneering suggestions of Herbert Froehlich (Froehlich,1967) and Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (Szent-Gyorgyi, 1957) on the role of electromagnetic coherence and the water in the biological dynamics.
We thank Prof. J. Pokorny for stimulating discussions during the International Symposium “Biophysical aspects of cancer electromagnetic mechanism” (Prague, Czech Republic, July 1-3, 2008). We acknowledge also many fruitful conversations with our friends , Prof. V.L. Voiekov on the properties of liquid water in biology, Profs. L.S. Brizhik and E. Tiezzi on the self-organisation in living matter.
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